Protetion of the persons with disabilities

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I- DEFINITIONS

To better understand the notion of person with disabilities, we should define the terms disability, Person with a Disability, Impairment, Inability, Invalidity, Physical Disability as outlined in Section 2 of Law N°2010/002 of April 13, 2010 on the Protection and Promotion of persons with disabilities.
Thus, Disability means a limitation of the opportunities of a person with impairment to full take part in an activity in a given environment.
As concerns the notion of person with disabilities, one should understand any person unable to ensure by himself all or part of the necessities of a normal individual or social life, due to a physical, mental or not congenital impairment.
Impairment is any loss or abnormality of a function or a psychological, physiological or anatomical structure.
Inability is any temporary, partial or total reduction of the ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.
Invalidity is a condition of a person whose ability to work is permanently reduced and evaluated in percentage because of physical or mental defects.
As concerns Infirmity, it is any situation in which there is a person who, for congenital causes or not find himself with an organ or limb amputated or defective.

II- NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS

People with disabilities as elsewhere, are often victims of discrimination and marginalisation. They do not always receive education and vocational training adequate to enter the job market, to live independently for their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.
In addition, the built environment (infrastructure and buildings open to the public) is generally designed and built without regard to concerns about accessibility of persons with disabilities, anything contributing to their exclusion from various activities and services of the community.  Furthermore, non-compliance with the legislation in force against them in various domains of the social life does not always facilitate the full enjoyment of their basic rights, dignity as well as the valorisation of their talents and potential.

III- ACTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT

In order to remedy this situation, the Government of Cameroon joined the international community in the development of a global policy.
We should mention some policies at national and international levels:
•    At the international level by:
- The adoption of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Optional Protocol thereto by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 13, 2006, and duly signed by Cameroon on October 1, 2008;
- The effective implementation of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Geneva;
- The extension of the African Decade of Persons with Disabilities for the 2010-2019 period.
•    At the national level by:
- The further implementation of the policy of Great Achievements of the Head of State, His Excellency Paul BIYA, materialised by the various developmental projects, a guarantee of the emergence of Cameroon and the improvement of the living conditions of vulnerable populations in general and persons with disabilities in particular;
- The drafting of the National Policy Paper on the Protection and Promotion of persons with disabilities;
- The appropriation of the National Employment Pact by the Cameroon on July 27, 2010;
- The enactment of Law N°2010/002 of April 13, 2010 on the protection and promotion of persons with disabilities of which the drafting of enabling texts is ongoing;
- The enactment of Law N°2011/018 of  July 15, 2011 on the organisation and promotion of sport and physical activities, which mandates the practice of physical and sporting activities including in institutions for the re-adaptation of persons with disabilities, creates the Cameroonian National Paralympic Committee and calls for the creation of sport federations under the orders of disability;
- The transformation of Cardinal Paul Emile LEGER National Rehabilitation Centre for Persons With Disabilities (CNRPH) in Public Administrative Establishment by Decree N°2009/096 of  March 15, 2009, complex of holistic care of all types of disabilities that will become a real pole of excellence in Cameroon and in the sub-region in terms of rehabilitation.
Concretely, transverse and multifaceted actions are carried out in favour of persons with disabilities including the:
Strengthening of the legal and institutional framework for the protection and promotion of persons with disabilities by :
- The implementation of the abovementioned Law N° 2010/002 of April 13, 2010 on the protection and promotion of persons with disabilities;
- The further operationalisation of Cardinal Paul Emile LEGER National Rehabilitation Centre for Persons With Disabilities(CNRPH), through the strengthening of the technical platform and the diversification of its services;
- The further construction of the Maroua Rehabilitation Centre for Persons With Disabilities with the support of the Italian Cooperation;
- The continuation of the project of capacity building and integrated rehabilitation through the construction of a contact space in Mbalmayo, showcase of the implementation of the strategy of Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR).
The further implementation of the recommendations of the first forum on national solidarity by actions hereinafter:
*** Development of advocacy tools for the integration of disability and vulnerable approach in development sector-based policies and programmes, including:
- The drafting of the monography on jobs accessible to persons with disabilities by type of disability, published in 2008;
- The publication of the Practical Guide on accessibility of persons with disabilities to infrastructures and  public buildings or buildings open to the public  launched on April 8, 2009 and accompanied by the signing of the Joint Communiqué MINAS / ARMP to ensure its proper compliance with the technical specifications by project owners and project owners' delegates;
- The publication of the Practical Guide on accessibility of persons with disabilities to education presented on February 1, 2010;
***Provision of schooling for children with disabilities and those born of poor parents with disabilities with:
- Further implementation of joint circular letters signed with MINESEC respectively on August 2, 2006 and August 14, 2007, to facilitate the admission of students with disabilities and those born of poor parents with disabilities in government high schools, and their participation in public examinations;
***The granting of subsidies each year, to private institutions of special education (children with hearing, mental and visual impaired) within the framework to build their technical, material and financial capacities as well as financial and/or material aids to pupils and students with disabilities within the framework of the support for their schooling;
***The ongoing diagnostic study on the situation and prospects of inclusive education in Cameroon.
***Promotion of socio-professional/ economic integration of persons with disabilities by:
- The putting of recruited persons with disabilities on contract in the MINFOPRA as temporary agents in public administration, within the framework of the pilot operation launched in January 2005 by the MINAS;
- The recruitment of one hundred and ten (110) teachers with disabilities holders of CAPIEMP or TEACHER'S GRADE ONE CERTIFICATE for the years 2010 and 2011 within the framework of the putting of general education teachers on contract in the MINEDUB ;
- The granting of vocational training and learning scholarships to vulnerable persons with disabilities by MINEFOP under the training year 2011/2012;
- The putting on contract of about 452 persons with disabilities within the framework of the special recruitment of 25,000 graduates in Cameroonian Public Service, launched in March 2011 by the President of the Republic;
-The Communication for Behaviour Change (CBC), through:
- The capacity building of families, communities and persons with disabilities themselves on the understanding of disability:  (causes, prevention and early detection and for the detected cases, the organisation of the delivery care ...);
- The fight against stigmatisation, exclusion and isolation of persons with disabilities through the sensitisation for change of outlook and attitudes towards persons with disabilities as well as the valorisation of their image and their potential.

IV- PERSPECTIVES

The actions envisaged focus on the:
- Ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities;
- Signing of the enabling instruments of Law N°2010/002 of April 13, 2010 on the protection and promotion of persons with disabilities which draft decrees have been drafted and transmitted to the Prime Minister's Office in 2011 and 2012;
- Further advocacy with all public and private administrations, development partners and civil society for the effective consideration of disability and vulnerable approach in policies, programmes and projects including the  Growth and Employment Strategy Paper(GESP) and the voluntarist development Vision of Cameroon in 2035;
- Putting in place of a National Solidarity Fund which prior draft texts were subjected to discussion recently in the Prime Minister's Office. This mechanism is a real trigger to underpin the realisation of the empowerment policy of persons with disabilities;
- Study for the construction of a Life and Social Development Centre for the rehabilitation of persons with mental disabilities and ex-mentally ill in Mfou;
- Operationalisation of the National Institute of Social Work (INTS), created by Decree N°2006/302 of September 21, 2006 and the introduction into the training curricula of that institute of specialised modules to promote social development and ensure the delivery care of some specific cases of deficiencies;
- Updating and extension of the monography on the jobs accessible to persons with disabilities by type of disability, published in 2008;
- Updating and popularisation of the Practical Guide on the accessibility of persons with disabilities to infrastructures and public buildings or buildings open to the public launched on April 8, 2009 and accompanied by the signing of the Joint Communiqué MINAS/ARMP to ensure its proper compliance with the technical specifications by project owners and project owners' delegates;
- Update and popularisation of the Practical Guide on the accessibility of persons with disabilities to education presented on February 1, 2010;
- Strengthening of the legal and institutional framework for the protection and promotion of persons with disabilities;
- Ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities by Cameroon;
- Revitalisation of the National Committee for Socio-Economic Re-adaptation and Re-insertion of Persons with Disabilities;
- Putting in place of a platform of partners called "Cameroon Inclusive Society Award »;
- Capacity building of drivers and driving schools' leaders on specific rules relating to disability;
- Signing of the joint circular letter MINTP/MINMAP/MINDUH/MINAS relating to the facilitation of the accessibility of persons with reduced mobility in the built environment;
- Operationalisation of the National Institute of Social Work (INTS), created by Decree N°2006/302 of September 21, 2006 and the introduction into the training curricula of that institute of specialised modules to promote social development and ensure the delivery care of some specific cases of deficiencies;
- Capacity building and further implementation of actions to promote and valorise the potential of persons with disabilities;
- Collection of qualitative and quantitative data on persons with disabilities per type of disability in Cameroon as a forecasting and decision-making tool aid;
- The drafting of a National Action Plan for the Protection and Promotion of Persons with disabilities;
- The development of multifaceted partnerships for the socio-economic integration of persons with disabilities;
- The effective involvement of local councils, notably through the signing of agreements.

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